How-To Geek

47 Keyboard Shortcuts That Work in All Web Browsers

browser keyboard shortcuts header

Each major web browser shares a large number of keyboard shortcuts in common. Whether you’re using Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Apple Safari, or Opera – these keyboard shortcuts will work in your browser.

Each browser also has some of its own, browser-specific shortcuts, but learning the ones they have in common will serve you well as you switch between different browsers and computers. This list includes a few mouse actions, too.


Ctrl+1-8 – Switch to the specified tab, counting from the left.

Ctrl+9 – Switch to the last tab.


Ctrl+Tab – Switch to the next tab – in other words, the tab on the right. (Ctrl+Page Up also works, but not in Internet Explorer.)

Ctrl+Shift+Tab – Switch to the previous tab – in other words, the tab on the left. (Ctrl+Page Down also works, but not in Internet Explorer.)

Ctrl+W, Ctrl+F4 – Close the current tab.

Ctrl+Shift+T – Reopen the last closed tab.


Ctrl+T – Open a new tab.

Ctrl+N – Open a new browser window.

Alt+F4 – Close the current window. (Works in all applications.)

Mouse Actions for Tabs

Middle Click a Tab – Close the tab.

Ctrl+Left Click, Middle Click – Open a link in a background tab.

Shift+Left Click – Open a link in a new browser window.

Ctrl+Shift+Left Click – Open a link in a foreground tab.


Alt+Left Arrow, Backspace – Back.

Alt+Right Arrow, Shift+Backspace – Forward.

F5 – Reload.

Ctrl+F5 – Reload and skip the cache, re-downloading the entire website.

Escape – Stop.

Alt+Home – Open homepage.



Ctrl and +, Ctrl+Mousewheel Up – Zoom in.

Ctrl and -, Ctrl+Mousewheel Down — Zoom out.

Ctrl+0 – Default zoom level.

F11 – Full-screen mode.



Space, Page Down – Scroll down a frame.

Shift+Space, Page Up – Scroll up a frame.

Home – Top of page.

End – Bottom of page.

Middle Click – Scroll with the mouse. (Windows only)


Address Bar

Ctrl+L, Alt+D, F6 – Focus the address bar so you can begin typing.

Ctrl+Enter – Prefix www. and append .com to the text in the address bar, and then load the website. For example, type howtogeek into the address bar and press Ctrl+Enter to open

Alt+Enter – Open the location in the address bar in a new tab.


Ctrl+K, Ctrl+E – Focus the browser’s built-in search box or focus the address bar if the browser doesn’t have a dedicated search box. (Ctrl+K doesn’t work in IE, Ctrl+E does.)

Alt+Enter – Perform a search from the search box in a new tab.

Ctrl+F, F3 – Open the in-page search box to search on the current page.

Ctrl+G, F3 – Find the next match of the searched text on the page.

Ctrl+Shift+G, Shift+F3 – Find the previous match of the searched text on the page.


History & Bookmarks

Ctrl+H – Open the browsing history.

Ctrl+J – Open the download history.

Ctrl+D – Bookmark the current website.

Ctrl+Shift+Del – Open the Clear Browsing History window.


Other Functions

Ctrl+P – Print the current page.

Ctrl+S – Save the current page to your computer.

Ctrl+O – Open a file from your computer.

Ctrl+U – Open the current page’s source code. (Not in IE.)

F12 – Open Developer Tools. (Requires Firebug extension for Firefox.)


Does one of these keyboard shortcuts not work in a specific browser, or is there another important one we missed here? Leave a comment and let us know.

Image Credit: Mikeropology on Flickr (modified)

Chris Hoffman is a technology writer and all-around computer geek. He's as at home using the Linux terminal as he is digging into the Windows registry. Connect with him on Google+.

  • Published 05/21/12

Comments (77)

  1. Dejavu

    Helpful and useful post as always.Thank you :)

  2. Meena Bassem

    nice collection :)

  3. Shabir Virk

    You Can Also Use

    Shift+Space To Go Up
    Shift+Enter To Open Site With .Net And Ctrl+Shift+Enter To Open Org

  4. gyffes

    “Ctrl+1-8 – Switch to the specified tab, counting from the left.”

    Nope. Doesn’t work in Safari. It merely loads the first, 2nd, 3rd (etc) bookmark from the bookmark toolbar.

    Drives me BATTY.

    Also doesn’t work in Opera. Just… doesn’t work. But at least it doesn’t work WRONG.

  5. Anonymous

    Many shortcuts don’t works on Opera.
    For example, Ctrl+1-9 go to the specified site from Speed Dial (1 = left upper corner).
    To reopen the last closed tab it’s Ctrl+Alt+Z
    And so on. Moreover, Opera include many mouse shortcuts, based on clicks and mouse movements.
    But a useful post for anyone who doesn’t use Opera :p

  6. anon

    does this only work in windows or does it include linux and macs too…..

  7. George

    You forgot the Alt Key!
    This Brings The Menu Bar Up When It Is Hidden And It Works In All Applications!

  8. true911

    Sure, nice list, been using them for years. Problems arise on javascript-heavy sites whose pages take complete control of keyboard input, and don’t replicate the browser’s native shortcuts themselves. More and more pages are non-responsive to the standard shortcuts. Standards, people!

  9. thegeekkid


  10. Bill

    Many of these do not work on Mac.

  11. belide

    F2 Renaming the Folder.

  12. StevenTorrey

    That red X box, click on that solves a whole lot of problems. Click page, choose–good to go. What could be simpler?

  13. Earnie

    in Internet Explorer, a “hard refresh” that skips cache and reloads all images is CTRL+F5.
    Shift+F5 does nothing in IE9

  14. LaDonna

    I’ve never used very many shortcuts, so for me to learn them all would be more trouble than it’s worth, but one I HAVE used for years is CTRL+o in Internet Explorer (any version). It opens up a small box where you can type any web address you want to go to. I also learned, way back in the dark ages, that you don’t have to type “HTTP:” in front of the address first. I didn’t realize that it opens your Windows Explorer in Chrome and other browsers. I guess that’s because I’ve never tried until now when it was brought to my attention since I only use Chrome for certain things. :)

    Question: What is the best browser to use, that is the safest and least invasive to your privacy, and still allows you to be able to play online games (ie: WoW), watch videos from YouTube or Bing, and movies from Netflix? Or is IE the only one to allow you to be able to do all of these things? I run suggested programs from several times a day (I love Iobit software) to keep my computer clean and safe, but since I bank online it would be nice to know what browser would be the safest to use for that type of thing.

  15. abdo

    Ctrl+R refresh with removing the cache of the browser

  16. owen123


    I would imagine that they would work on Mac but ctrl replaced with cmd / apple.

    Not sure about linux

  17. stuart

    F12 does open Firebug in Firefox, if you have it installed/enabled. Firebug is similar in functionality to Dev Tools.

  18. Siosilvar

    Care for a mac version? Everybody could use some good shortcuts. I don’t use a Mac or else I’d figure it out myself and put it here.

  19. stuart

    The Alt key works in most applications- but not Chrome, for example.

  20. Shabir Ragab

    Very useful , thanks

  21. Earnie

    True911… I feel you on the Java and Flash heavy pages.

    I discovered that you can click on an HTML portion of a page to “bring the focus” back to the browser so you can use the keyboard shortcuts.

    An obvious case: YouTube. When you click into a video to play/pause/rewind/etc., you are unable to use basic keyboard shortcuts to navigate the page (e.g. arrow keys/space bar to scroll down to read comments, or ALT-Left Arrow to go back because the related video you clicked on wasn’t appropriate for work).

  22. duttaapd2009

    I know almost 50 shotcuts

  23. Ushindi

    Thanks – will save me a lot of mousing. Easier on my tired old joints.

  24. Eric

    Hold Shift and scroll your mouse wheel moves forward and backward through history for that tab in ie.



  26. 1moreanony


    Owen123 posted this, and it does work. I don’t know about Chrome or IE, but replacing Ctrl with Cmd does work in Firefox on a Mac. Do not try to switch tabs with Cmd+Tab, though, because it will switch the active application. Fortunately, Ctrl+Tab does work (Shift+Ctrl+Tab also works as listed above). I don’t do much with Safari, but Cmd+T does open a new tab in it.

    Also, for a Macbook with no Home key, Alt+Home becomes Alt+Fn+Left Arrow.

  27. Madonna

    What about these:
    — Print Preview option
    — Print Selection option
    Sometimes I just need to print a portion of a screen/webpage.

  28. John

    Bookmarking this one! great quick reference! just reviewed an old computer journal I did and Ioved memorizing the keyboard shortcuts! marvelous to have an updated version of good-to-recall browser key commands/shortcuts/

  29. MichaelK1919

    Just as Space goes down a fram, Shift+Space goes up one.

  30. sloejack

    What would be a really handy addition to this information would be to understand how you can disable some behavior that is consistent across all browsers like the 3+4 or 4+5 mouse buttons doing history forward or history back actions which can be really frustrating when filled out forms get wiped out from a mis-click/bump of the mouse.

  31. mrhhug

    alright, ive been battling with this one for YEARs. when you alt+f and then find the hyperlink you want. now that hyperlink is highlighted. what combo can i use to follow that link. that page should be loading as i move back to the mouse. not me move back to the mouse then click link then wait…… its been driving me crazy. also opera’s mouse gestures can be added to almost any browser. the nanoseconds saved are amazing.

  32. SujitSK

    Thanks much; a few from reader’s comments were interesting too.

  33. Elham

    i need windows 7 keyboard shortcuts

  34. starman1695

    I learned a lot.. Thank you so much!

  35. Altyer Otoni

    I use Firefox and Tab Mix Plus add-on, so I can personalize it.. Useful, however.

  36. Haridevan

    Very very Use full for my professional ,thank you very much..

  37. Chris Hoffman

    Thanks for chiming in, everyone. I’m disappointed that so many of them don’t work in Opera. And Safari should really work with Ctrl-#, that’s really useful.

    I tried to note where some of them don’t work in every web browser, but all of them should work in most browsers.

  38. edward

    Dupczyć to.

  39. جوادزاده Javadzadeh

    Very Good ! Specially Ctrl+ absorbed me


  40. Frank

    thanks a lot

  41. Fahd Murtaza

    Ctrl + R, Ctrl + f5 for refresh with reloading the cached resources of the page. Pretty useful for developers when updating CSS or javascript and want the updated copy to load. Deletes the cache for the page and gets the latest ones from web server.

  42. MofEA

    Such commonality smacks of common sense and should be discouraged at all costs. Surely there is a patent somebody can sue over here somewhere? Another very helpful article from HTG. :-)
    (The first two sentences are irony in case anybody thinks me serious.)

  43. Anonim

    Ctrl + F – find a word in the www site

  44. Casand

    It is an interesting stuff , thanks for sharing

  45. rroberto18

    Are there any editing tips (as in email writing) that work across browsers with all/most cloud email sites
    (gmail, hotmail, yahoomail)?

  46. VinceR

    I would dearly love to use CTRL, Wheel to zoom in or out, but it doesn’t work with MSN. It works OK with Optonline e-mail and with Outlook.

    Any fix?

  47. johnleo

    Ctrl+1-8, Ctrl+o -doesn’t seem to work in MAxthon

  48. Geoff Kendall

    I know almost 50 shortcuts too… because I just read an article listing 47 shortcuts. Thanks, HTG!

  49. ali

    that was pretty good

  50. Kwpolska

    > Middle Click – Scroll with the mouse.

    Windows only. Can you please tell about that in the article?

  51. Efilon

    Ctrl+Tab or Ctrl+1-8 doesn’t work if u are on page with some flash aplication as Youtube :/

  52. Judith

    Very informative and useful. Now if you could tell me how to customize Chrome’s so tabs would show below the address window and I could add a print command to the menu, my smile would be even wider.

  53. Mansur Junior

    It was helpful! Now i know more of the shortcuts…Thanks to

  54. Bogdan

    Maybe you should add “about:plugins” “about:extensions”.

  55. Kage

    F12 works in Firefox, as long as you have the Firebug extension installed.

  56. Syed Arif

    Thank u for help Always.

  57. sikas

    As usual, you always provide GREAT tips for everything :)

  58. Mike

    Great post. I knew about 60% of these but found some new ones like ALT+D address bar and ALT+ENTER open url in new tab, fabulous!

  59. Dale

    the Ctrl+1-8, Ctrl+TAB works until i get to my Shakes And Fidget tab and then quits working have to manually click on the next tab

  60. Srivas SI

    Very Useful and valuable information.. Thanks a lot :)

  61. Namiutz

    Tnx! :)

  62. Bhuvan

    Ctrl+Shift+Del doesn’t work in IE7, to open up Clear Browsing history window

  63. MN Shroff

    I tried some of the commands on my iPad browser -shifting to next/ last tab, etc. It didn’t work !

  64. Houman

    very useful.

  65. Ravindra

    Thank you for shortcuts key.

  66. spike

    The fullscreen shortcuts (F11, Alt+Enter in IE) don’t work while on a page with Adobe PDF plugin, except chrome, which comes bundled with it’s own.

    @Elham- for win7 shortcuts, go here

  67. Dan

    Thanks! I’ve learnt a couple of new shortcuts here


    Shift+F5 – Reload and skip the cache, re-downloading the entire website.

    I believe this should be Ctrl+F5

  68. Chris Hoffman

    I’ve reviewed all the comments and updated the post with everyone’s great suggestions.


    Thanks for the information. I’ve changed the post to Ctrl+F5 for better compatability. Shift+F5 works in Chrome and possible other browsers, but clearly not IE.


    Thanks, I added Shift+Space as going up, too.


    Middle click is Windows only. Added that too.


    Added F12 pulling Firebug up, too.

  69. Kestrel

    Here a couple that may also help
    Ctrl + 1 single spaced paragraph
    5 1.5 line paragraph space
    2 Double space paragraph
    L Left aligned paragraph
    E Centered paragraph
    R Right aligned paragraph
    J Justified paragraph
    M increase indent one tab stop
    T increase hanging indent one tab stop
    W closes document
    Windows key + E opens explorer window
    D minimizes all open windows displays
    F displays search results
    L locks Windows XP computer
    R displays run command
    pause or break displays system properties

  70. Joy

    Great piece of collection. Thanks

  71. rbouvet

    I for one am glad to get a refresher course and often new information, in what the keyboard can do.
    Many of these shortcuts I did not know about, but now I do.
    Glad to have read this article.

  72. ddmillie

    Thank you very useful for me I am a beginer

  73. husnain

    sir please tell me computer key words .

  74. Alex

    Ugh…. I wonder how much of my life I have wasted right clicking on links to open them in new tabs…… and on various other ‘long way round’ methods.

  75. Eddie

    In IE8 Ctrl+K – Duplicates the current tab in a new tab

  76. Mike

    In Safari I can use a shortcut to any of my bookmarks.
    Command+1 or 2,3,4,5,6,etc will take me to that bookmark.

    Can I set this up in Firefox?


  77. Akshansh

    Very Helpful..
    Thank you.

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