The default shell on most Linux operating systems is called Bash. There are a couple of important hotkeys that you should get familiar with if you plan to spend a lot of time at the command line. These shortcuts will save you a ton of time if you learn them.
If you are running Ubuntu Server, or even if you prefer to administer your desktop from the command line, you will want to be able to see what packages are available for update. Ubuntu includes a great package management tool called Aptitude that gives you an interactive environment from which to install/upgrade packages.
The package management system on Ubuntu makes it extremely simple to install and remove packages, but sometimes it’s important to figure out what version of a particular package that you actually have installed.
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When you are using a linux system, it’s useful to find out what groups you belong to, so you can understand whether you have access to files and directories. This is one of the simplest commands possible. I’m using Ubuntu linux, but this command should work on most varieties of linux.
Screen is like a window manager for your console. It will allow you to keep multiple terminal sessions running and easily switch between them. It also protects you from disconnection, because the screen session doesn’t end when you get disconnected.
If you install Ubuntu from a cd-rom, when you try to use apt-get to install new software it will prompt you for the cdrom every time. Kinda frustrating!