In a private-key cryptographic scheme, the same key is used to encrypt the data as is used to decrypt the data. Although there is an inherent security risk with private-key encryption schemes as all parties must share the same key in order for the system to function, there are several widely adopted private-key encryption schemes, including TwoFish and AES.
Ciphertext is a term used in cryptography and computer security to refer to text which has been run through an encryption algorithm (the cipher which converted the text from plain, human readable text, to encrypted text). If you send an encrypted email using a public key system, for example, part of the email is plaintext and part of the email is cipher text. The header of the email and the information on how to retrieve the public key will be in plaintext and the encrypted portion of the email intended only for the recipient will be in ciphertext.
Plaintext is a term used in cryptography and computer security to refer to text which is transferred without encryption. Unencrypted emails, for example, are sent entirely as plaintext when transferred between email hosts, as are instant messages and a wide variety of communications. Even encrypted communication channels typically use plaintext during the very initial negotiation before switching to an entirely encrypted exchange.
The Terms of Service is set of rules an individual or organization must abide by in order to use a service. A Terms of Service agreement is legally binding (except in cases where the individual is below a certain age and does not have parental consent or the terms of service violates local, state, or federal laws) and generally covers various aspects of the user’s interaction with the service, such as how the user’s data will be used, how the user can use the service (e.g. you can send personal email but you can’t send commercial email), and so on.
In computer science, a cache is a hardware component that stores frequently used pieces of data for more rapid access. Modern CPUs, for example, have both instructional and data caches to increase the speed at which the processor can access instruction sets and data.
Within the context of video gaming, frames per second (FPS) refers to the speed at which the screen image is refreshed. The more frames that can be fully rendered per second, the more fluid the game play appears to the player. When frame rates drop below 30 FPS in an action heavy game (such as a first person shoot like Halo or Call of Duty), the action appears choppy to the human eye. For most games 30-60 FPS is considered acceptable, but increasingly powerful hardware and sophisticated games have pushed the envelope to above 100 FPS, a rate of refresh which provides extremely fluid and smooth in-game movement.
In computing, a buffer is a portion of physical memory storage set aside to temporarily store data while it is being moved and/or processed in some fashion. While buffers are used silently all around us as computers move data back and forth (such as when you spool up a giant set of playlists to copy over to your MP3 player), sometimes the buffers are readily apparent. When you’re waiting for a YouTube video to load, for example, your web browser is trying to decode enough of the video and store it in a buffer so that any latency or other data transfer issues will be smoothed over before the buffered video catches up.
An obfuscator is a program designed to make it difficult to understand or reverse engineer source code. The obfuscator takes the clean human-readable source code the programmer has created and does a thorough job shuffling it around, changing simple variables to confusing ones, and otherwise making it difficult for another person to sit down and read the original clean copy (but all while still maintaining the functionality of the source code).
Transcoding is the process of shifting the encoding method of a given media file. For example, if you had a music album in AAC format but the media-playback function in your car’s in-dash digital music player would only accept MP3 files, you would need to use software to transcode the AAC encoded album into an MP3 encoded album.
Just as a compiler turns high-level programming languages into low-level programming languages in order to run them on the computer, a decompiler reverses the process and takes low-level programming language (like machine code) and translates it into higher-level programming languages (like C++).
A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that converts source code from the original programming language into another computer language. Typically, this process is used to convert a high-level programming language (such as C++) into a lower level language (such as machine code) so that the program can be run as an executable.
High-level programming languages are computer programming languages with a strong abstraction that provides a high degree of human readability. Unlike low-level programming languages which work by directly interacting with the processor (and as such are machine, not human, readable), high-level programming languages provide natural language systems and structures (such as IF statements and other human-readable functions) that make it easier for programmers to work with the language.
A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction or divergence from the actual instructions the architecture of the computer uses to execute commands. Machine code is an example of low-level programming language and is the only programming language that allows for direct and untranslated interaction with a computer processor (despite being very difficult to work with and requiring an extreme attention to detail, it is still used when considerable speed and lightweight programming is required).
In computing, a soft reset is a software initiated reset of the hardware and software states. The soft reset is started by the operating system (either automatically or at the request of the user) and a set process is followed to shutdown applications, close out system files, and otherwise gracefully bring the system to a halt before starting it up again. Soft resets are preferred to hard resets (which halt all processes on the hardware level and can cause file corruption and system instability).
In computing, a hard reset is a hardware operation that restarts the system hardware and, in the process, ends all current software activity. Pressing the physical reset button (or holding the power button down for 3-5 seconds in the absence of a reset button) is the most common way to perform a hard reset on a computer.
ANSI art, based on the 256 ANSI character set, was a natural outgrowth of ASCII art. Just like ASCII art uses letters, numbers, and basic symbols to create images out of computer characters, ANSI does the same only with the additional 128 mathematical and foreign characters unavailable in the ASCII character set.
ANSI stands for the American National Standards Institute. The Institute is nearly a century old and responsible for maintaining a wide variety of standards across many industries including nuclear energy, chemical production, and health care information technology, but in computer lingo ANSI is used to refer to ANSI code standard.
ASCII art is artwork created using the set of 128 symbols in the ASCII character set (English letters, numbers, and symbols). By aligning various characters the illusion of or the symbolic representation of an image is achieved. While many examples of ASCII art are multi-line, even a simple combination of characters, such as <(o.o)> , can yield a recognizable pattern.
ASCII, the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding scheme based on the English alphabet that encodes 128 characters (numbers, upper and lower case letters, as well symbols and control codes), into 7-bit machine readable binary integers.
Traceroute is an internet utility that performs a function exactly like its name implies: it traces the route data takes from the local computer back to the remote host. The utility is useful for a variety of diagnostic tasks such as establishing where in a route the connection is lost and how long the route is.
A newbie, alternatively spelled newb or noob, is a neophyte in a given pursuit. The term refers to the lack of skills, experience, and understanding of conventions the individual has in the area in question. Thus one can be a “newbie” to the world of competitive real-time strategies or tennis without being considered generally unskilled or incompetent.
Expansion cards are add-on circuit boards that expand the functionality of a computer. While there have been numerous variations on expansion card designs going back to the 1970s, the current standard is the PCI/PCI Express format. Computer motherboards (excluding laptops and very small form-factor micro desktop models) have expansion ports that allow you to add in additional hardware in order to add or improve a wide variety of functions on the computer such as better sound, additional ports for USB devices, upgrading to a better quality Ethernet card, and more.
In computer architecture, a bus is a communication system that transfers data between other components. Bus systems can be so small and buried in the hardware as to be invisible to the end-user (such as the address bus found within the CPU’s architecture) or can have obvious manifestations that the end user can interact with such as USB (Universal Serial Bus), the ubiquitous computer input connection.