General locations are, well, everything else which might be placed on a separate medium...
/home contains the home directories of all the local users
/boot contains the static boot-related files, not actually necessary once the system is booted (for instance, it includes the bootloader configuration and kernel image)
/media contains the mount points for the various detachable storage (like USB disks, DVDs, ...)
/mnt is a location for temporarily mounted media (read: not worth the trouble of defining them in fstab)
/opt contains add-on packages and is usually used to install applications into which are not provided by your package manager natively (as those should reside in /usr) or build specific to the local system (/usr/local).
/tmp contains temporary files for the system tools. The location can be cleansed at boot up.
/var contains data that changes in size, such as log files, caches, etc.
for more infos , check this link :